History, Minor

Program Description

The History minor is designed for students who are interested in history but cannot commit to it as their major. It makes an excellent companion for students majoring in pre-law and criminal justice, political science, literature and modern languages, philosophy, and sociology.

Program Requirements

The minor requires just eighteen credit hours beyond the history core and can usually be completed in one academic year. After completing six hours of lower-division history surveys (HIST 2311, 2312, 2322), students choose two courses each from two large clusters of upper-division electives.

Core Courses
HIST 1301U.S. History to 1865 *3
HIST 1302U.S. History Since 1865 *3
HIST 2301Texas History3
Lower-division Surveys
Select two of the following:6
Western Civilization I
Western Civilization II
World History Since 1500
Upper-division Electives
European and World History
Select two of the following:6
History of World Religions
Colonial Latin America
Modern Latin America
The Ancient World
Europe 1750?1815
Europe 1815?1914
Europe 1914 to the Present
Modern Asia
Dictators and Dirty Wars in Latin America
The Art and Practice of History
European Women's History
The Holocaust
EUROPEAN THOUGHT AND CULTURE, 1750-PRESENT
The Search for Modern China: From 1600 to the Present
The History of Sexuality in the West
Transnational Histories of Asia and the Pacific
Narratives of World War II in the Pacific
Mexico: the National Period
Cold War Kids: Youth in Modern Latin America
Topics in History
U.S. History
Select two of the following:6
Colonial and Revolutionary U.S.
The Early American Republic
Civil War and Reconstruction
U.S. Gilded Age and Progressive Era
Emergence of Modern U.S.
U.S. Since 2nd World War
The U.S. Urban Experience
America by Nature
Introduction to Public History
Oral History and Podcasting
U.S. Cultural Experience
U.S. Modern Popular Culture
The Military and United States History
Mexican American History
United States Women's History
Transnational Histories of Asia and the Pacific
Narratives of World War II in the Pacific
Mexican American Women's History
Topics in History
Total Hours27

Courses

HIST 1301  U.S. History to 1865  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

A SURVEY OF THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, MILITARY, CULTURAL AND INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES FROM 1492 TO 1865.

TCCNS: HIST 1301  
HIST 1302  U.S. History Since 1865  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

A SURVEY OF THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, MILITARY, CULTURAL AND INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES FROM 1865 TO THE PRESENT.

TCCNS: HIST 1302  
HIST 2301  Texas History  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD, MEXICAN STATEHOOD, INDEPENDENCE, THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC, ANNEXATION AND GROWTH AS A STATE.

TCCNS: HIST 2301  
HIST 2311  Western Civilization I  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

SURVEY OF THE CULTURES AND CIVILIZATIONS OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN WORLD AND THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, MILITARY, CULTURAL, AND INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCES SHAPING THE EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPE TO 1500.

TCCNS: HIST 2311  
HIST 2312  Western Civilization II  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

A SURVEY OF THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, MILITARY, CULTURAL, AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPE FROM 1500 TO THE PRESENT.

TCCNS: HIST 2312  
HIST 2322  World History Since 1500  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

WORLD HISTORY SINCE 1500 EXAMINES MAJOR GLOBAL ISSUES OVER THE PAST 500 YEARS. TOPICS MAY INCLUDE EUROPEAN EXPANSION AND COLONIALISM, THE INTEGRATION OF THE AMERICANS INTO WORLD ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, CHANGES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, DECOLONIZATION, AND MODERN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS. THIS COURSE WILL HELP STUDENTS UNDERSTAND HISTORICAL EVENTS WITHIN A GLOBAL FRAMEWORK.

HIST 3301  History of World Religions  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

SURVEYS THE KEY BELIEFS, PRACTICES, RITUALS, FIGURES, AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS OF THE WORLD'S MAJOR RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS, INCLUDING HINDUISM, BUDDHISM, CONFUCIANISM, JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, ISLAM, AND NEW AGE RELIGIONS. GIVES PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO THEIR ENCOUNTER WITH MODERNITY AND THEIR COMPLICATED PLACE IN TODAY'S GLOBAL, DIVERSE, POST-MODERN WORLD.

HIST 3303  Colonial Latin America  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

AN OVERVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY FROM PRE-COLUMBIAN TIMES UNTIL INDEPENDENCE.

HIST 3304  Modern Latin America  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

A STUDY OF THE MAJOR POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL PROCESSES THAT MARKED THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN LATIN AMERICA.

HIST 3307  The Ancient World  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

THIS COURSE EXAMINES THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE HUMAN RACE. IT BEGINS WITH THE EVOLUTION OF HOMO SAPIENS IN AFRICA AND CONTINUES THROUGH APPROXIMATELY THE 4TH CENTURY CE. TOPICS EXAMINED INCLUDE THE FORMATION OF CULTURES, SOCIETIES, STATES, AND EMPIRES AROUND THE WORLD INCLUDING THOSE IN EGYPT, SOUTHWEST ASIA, INDIA, CHINA, AND THE MEDITERRANEAN.

HIST 3315  Europe 1750?1815  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

EXPLORES THE PROCESSES WHICH CONTRIBUTES TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL ORDER IN EUROPE. THE COURSE INCLUDES AN IN-DEPTH FOCUS UPON THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AS WELL AS AN EXAMINATION OF THE EUROPEAN RESPONSE TO NAPOLEON.

HIST 3317  Europe 1815?1914  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

THE EVOLUTION OF EUROPEAN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY FROM THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA TO THE OUTBREAK OF WORLD WAR I. THEMES INCLUDE CHANGES IN THE NATURE OF WORK AND FAMILY LIFE, URBANIZATION, AND THE EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF LIBERALISM, SOCIALISM, NATIONALISM, AND ROMANTICISM AS COMPETING IDEOLOGIES.

HIST 3319  Europe 1914 to the Present  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS SINCE 1914: INCLUDES THE IMPACT OF WORLD WAR I, THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION, FASCISM, THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR, THE TENSION BETWEEN EUROPEAN UNIFICATION AND GROWING ETHNIC TENSIONS AND THE DISSOLUTION OF THE SOVIET EMPIRE.

HIST 3320  Colonial and Revolutionary U.S.  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

TRACES REGIONAL ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN THE AMERICAS FROM 1607 TO THE END OF THE REVOLUTION.

HIST 3321  The Early American Republic  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

THIS COURSE EXAMINES AMERICAN HISTORY FROM THE END OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR TO 1850. POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL ISSUES INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE CREATION OF THE CONSTITUTION, THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST AND SECOND PARTY SYSTEMS, THE MARKET REVOLUTION, ANTEBELLUM REFORM, THE OLD SOUTH, AND WESTWARD EXPANSION.

HIST 3323  Civil War and Reconstruction  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

BACKGROUND AND CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR; MILITARY, POLITICAL, DIPLOMATIC, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE WAR; RECONSTRUCTION AND POST?WAR ADJUSTMENTS.

HIST 3324  U.S. Gilded Age and Progressive Era  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

AN EXAMINATION OF THE DRAMATIC PERIOD WHEN THE UNITED STATES DEFINITIVELY SETTLED THE REMAINING PORTIONS OF THE CONTINENT AND DECISIVELY MOVED TOWARDS BECOMING AN INDUSTRIAL, URBAN NATION WITH WORLD-WIDE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL INFLUENCE.

HIST 3325  Emergence of Modern U.S.  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

STUDY OF AMERICAN LIFE FROM WORLD WAR I THROUGH WORLD WAR II. TOPICS INCLUDE AMERICA'S RISE TO A WORLD POWER, THE SOCIAL, CULTURAL, AND POLITICAL EFFECTS OF CORPORATE ENTERPRISE, URBANIZATION, AND IMMIGRATION, WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE, THE TWENTIES, AND THE NEW DEAL.

HIST 3326  U.S. Since 2nd World War  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

A STUDY OF AMERICAN LIFE AND DEVELOPMENT AS A WORLD POWER SINCE WORLD WAR II.

HIST 3335  The U.S. Urban Experience  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE SOCIAL, CULTURAL, AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN CITY, WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON CORPUS CHRISTI AND THE WAYS OUR CITY ILLUSTRATES THESE LARGER TRENDS.

HIST 3340  Modern Asia  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

THIS COURSE WILL EXAMINE ASIA FROM 1600 TO THE PRESENT. TOPICS INCLUDE POLITICS, THE NATION STATE, COLONIALISM, EMPIRE, WAR, NATIONALISM, THE COLD WAR AND REVOLUTION, ALL IN A HISTORICAL CONTEXT.

HIST 3345  America by Nature  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

EXAMINES THE ROLE OF NATURE IN THE NATION'S PAST, LOOKING BEYOND MORE TRADITIONAL HISTORICAL TOPICS TO DISCOVER HOW THE ENVIRONMENT HAS SHAPED SOCIETY AND THE WAYS IN WHICH HUMANS, IN TURN, HAVE SHAPED NATURE THROUGHOUT AMERICAN HISTORY. COMMUNITY-ENGAGED LEARNING COMPONENT.

HIST 3350  Dictators and Dirty Wars in Latin America  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

EXPLORES THE RISE OF DICTATORSHIPS AND MILITARY REGIMES IN TWENTIETH CENTURY LATIN AMERICA.  FOCUSES ON HUMAN RIGHTS STRUGGLES AND POPULAR MOVEMENTS IN MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE SOUTHERN CONE.

HIST 3360  Introduction to Museum Studies  
3 Semester Credit Hours (1.5 Lecture Hours)  

IN THIS CROSS-DISCIPLINARY CLASS, STUDENTS OF HISTORY, SCIENCES, THE ARTS, AND MORE WILL BE INTRODUCED TO THE DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF A MUSEUM AND GAIN EXPERIENCE IN PROGRAMMING, EXHIBITS, RESEARCH, PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT, AND OTHER VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MUSEUM MANAGEMENT THROUGH THEIR PARTICIPATION IN A REAL WORKING MUSEUM (CORPUS CHRISTI MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND HISTORY).

HIST 3370  Introduction to Public History  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

A PROJECT-CENTERED CLASS THAT EXAMINES PUBLIC HISTORY PRACTICES AND DEBATES, INCLUDING THE CHANGING FIELD OVER TIME, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HISTORY AND MEMORY, AND THE INTERPRETIVE AND SOMETIMES CONTROVERSIAL NATURE OF HISTORICAL SITES AND EXHIBITS. STUDENTS WILL ALSO LEARN METHODS AND PRACTICES OF MUSEUMS, ARCHIVES, ORAL HISTORY, DIGITAL HISTORY, AND MORE. INCLUDES COMMUNITY-ENGAGED LEARNING, WORKSHOPS, LOCAL FIELD TRIPS.

HIST 3373  Oral History and Podcasting  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

A PROJECT-BASED COURSE DESIGNED TO TEACH STUDENTS ORAL HISTORY, AUDIO RECORDING, AND EDITING. TOPICS INCLUDE ORAL HISTORY THEORY AND METHODS, THE ROLE OF TESTIMONY AND MEMORY IN CONSTRUCTING HISTORICAL NARRATIVES, INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES, ARCHIVAL PRACTICES, AND THE TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF AUDIO PRODUCTION, AUDIO STORYTELLING, AND PODCASTING.

HIST 3385  The Art and Practice of History  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

INTRODUCES STUDENTS TO THE MOST SIGNIFICANT HISTORIOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS THAT FACE HISTORIANS, FOCUSING ON RECENT AND CURRENT CONTROVERSIES THAT HAVE SHAKEN THE PROFESSION AND BEEN THE SUBJECT OF PUBLIC AND POLITICAL DEBATE. PROVIDES EXAMPLES OF HOW HISTORIANS THINK ABOUT AND DO HISTORY.

Prerequisite: (HIST 1301, 1302 and 2311) or (HIST 2312).

HIST 4320  U.S. Cultural Experience  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

EXPLORES WAYS THAT THE MYRIAD GROUPS WHO HAVE MADE UP AMERICAN SOCIETY FROM THE COLONIAL PERIOD TO THE "INFORMATION AGE" UNDERSTOOD AND EXPRESSED THEMSELVES AND RELATED TO EACH OTHER. (THE CHRONOLOGICAL SCOPE OF THIS COURSE MAY VARY.)

HIST 4327  U.S. Modern Popular Culture  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN POPULAR CULTURE—INCLUDING TELEVISION, MOVIES, FICTION, NEWSPAPERS, MUSIC AND CONSUMPTION—AND ITS EFFECT ON THE STRUCTURE AND EXPERIENCE OF U.S. SOCIETY AND WORK FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT.

HIST 4335  The Military and United States History  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

THE DEVELOPMENT OF U.S. MILITARY STRATEGY AND POLICY FROM THE COLONIAL WARS THROUGH VIETNAM.

HIST 4336  Mexican American History  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

SPANISH AND MESOAMERICAN BACKGROUNDS, CONQUEST AND MESTIZAJE, SETTLEMENT OF AZTLÁN, INTERACTION WITH ANGLO-AMERICANS, 20TH CENTURY IMMIGRATION, URBANIZATION, IDENTITY, THE CHICANO MOVEMENT, AND MEXICAN AMERICAN ORGANIZATIONAL/POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT.

HIST 4337  United States Women's History  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

THEMES INCLUDE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE NOTION OF WOMANHOOD AND OF SEXUAL DIFFERENCES, CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, AND CONCEPT OF "FAMILY" AND "HOUSEHOLD," AND HISTORICAL FACTORS THAT HAVE SHAPED WOMEN'S ROLE IN THE WORK FORCE AND PUBLIC LIFE.

HIST 4340  European Women's History  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

STUDY OF THE EXPERIENCES OF EUROPEAN WOMEN FROM THE 18TH TO THE 20TH CENTURIES. ALSO ADDRESSES THE ROLE THAT GENDER HAS PLAYED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN EUROPEAN SOCIETIES. SOME TOPICS COVERED ARE WOMEN AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, GENDER AND CLASS IN INDUSTRIAL EUROPE, FEMINISM AND SUFFRAGE, AND WOMEN AND FASHION.

HIST 4342  The Holocaust  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

EXAMINES THE HOLOCAUST BY EXPLORING THE ROLE OF RACISM AND ANTI-SEMITISM, THE RISE OF NAZI POLICIES, JEWISH RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE TO THEM, DEPORTATION AND GENOCIDE, THE ROLE OF WAR, AND THE AFTERMATH AND MEMORY OF AN EVENT "BEYOND HUMAN IMAGINATION."

HIST 4345  EUROPEAN THOUGHT AND CULTURE, 1750-PRESENT  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

SURVEY OF THE MAJOR EUROPEAN INTELLECTUAL AND CULTURAL MOVEMENTS FROM THE ENLIGHTENMENT TO THE PRESENT. BROADER THAN A TRADITIONAL COURSE IN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY, SPECIAL ATTENTION WILL BE GIVEN TO THE EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPTS OF "MODERNITY" AND THE CHALLENGES OF "POSTMODERNISM."

HIST 4346  The Search for Modern China: From 1600 to the Present  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

THIS COURSE SURVEYS MODERN CHINESE HISTORY FROM THE LATE MING DYNASTY TO THE PRESENT, WITH AN EMPHASIS ON THE LATE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES. TOPICS INCLUDE EMPIRE, COLONIALISM, NATIONALISM, THE NATION STATE, MODERNIZATION, REVOLUTION AND THE COLD WAR, ALL IN A HISTORICAL CONTEXT.

HIST 4347  The History of Sexuality in the West  
3 Semester Credit Hours  

THIS COURSE WILL EXAMINE HOW IDEAS ABOUT SEXUALITY AS WELL AS SEXUAL PRACTICES AND IDENTITIES HAVE EVOLVED OVER TIME AND IN DIFFERENT PLACES; HOW THE CATEGORIES OF HOMOSEXUALITY AND HETEROSEXUALITY WERE CREATED AND HOW THEY HAVE BEEN PERCEIVED.  THE COURSE WILL FOCUS ON THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES, AND ADDRESS THE THEMES OF GENDER, BODY, RACE, CLASS, IMAGE, REPRESENTATION, AND THE LAW.

HIST 4349  Transnational Histories of Asia and the Pacific  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

EXPLORES THE TRANSNATIONAL RELATIONS OF ASIA AND THE PACIFIC WITH THE WEST FROM THE 19TH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT DAY. THEMES INCLUDE COLONIALISM AND IMPERIALISM, DIASPORA AND MIGRATION, LABOR AND ECONOMY, WAR AND DISPLACEMENT. TOPICS INCLUDE THE OPIUM WARS, IMMIGRATION AND EXCLUSION, ATOMIC BOMBING OF HIROSHIMA, MILITARY WAR BRIDES, THIRD WORLD RADICALISM, TRANSNATIONAL ADOPTION COMPLEX, AND ENVIRONMENTALISM AND GLOBALIZATION.

HIST 4350  Narratives of World War II in the Pacific  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

EXAMINES HOW THE RELATIONS BETWEEN HISTORY, MEMORY, AND CONTEMPORARY POLITICS IN POST-WWII U.S. AND ASIA-PACIFIC HAVE SHAPED THE MEANING OF VARIOUS CONTENTIOUS ISSUES RELATED TO THE PACIFIC WAR-SUCH AS WAR ORIGINS AND RESPONSIBILITY, ATROCITIES, RACISM, REPARATIONS, AND NATIONALISM-IN TEXTBOOKS, MONUMENTS, LITERATURE, ART, FILMS, POLITICAL DEBATES, EXHIBITS, COMMEMORATIVE EVENTS, AND SCHOLARLY WORKS IN DIFFERENT SOCIAL AND TEMPORAL CONTEXTS.

HIST 4352  Mexican American Women's History  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

EXAMINES THE BROAD POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL TRENDS IN THE LIVES OF MEXICAN AMERICAN WOMEN SINCE 1848.

HIST 4374  Mexico: the National Period  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

TRACES ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN MEXICO FROM INDEPENDENCE TO THE PRESENT.

HIST 4375  Cold War Kids: Youth in Modern Latin America  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

AN EXAMINATION OF THE EXPERIENCES OF LATIN AMERICAN YOUTH IN MODERN LATIN AMERICA.  SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE ROLE OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE REVOLUTIONS AND REBELLIONS THAT MARKED THE COLD WAR PERIOD.

HIST 4385  HISTORICAL RESEARCH AND WRITING  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

THE STUDY AND WRITING OF HISTORY, WITH EMPHASIS ON HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, RESEARCH, AND WRITING. DESIGNED AS THE CAPSTONE COURSE FOR HISTORY MAJORS AND PROSPECTIVE SOCIAL SCIENCE TEACHERS. THIS COURSE WILL FEATURE A SENIOR RESEARCH PAPER, AND SHOULD BE TAKEN DURING THE STUDENT'S FINAL YEAR OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDY. PREREQUISITE: EITHER HIST 3385 OR READ 3353

Prerequisite: HIST 3385 or READ 3353.

HIST 4390  Topics in History  
3 Semester Credit Hours (3 Lecture Hours)  

STUDY OF SIGNIFICANT PERIODS, COUNTRIES, REGIONS, OR THEMES IN HISTORY. MAY BE REPEATED WHEN TOPICS VARY.

HIST 4396  Directed Individual Study  
1-3 Semester Credit Hours  

SEE COLLEGE DESCRIPTION.

HIST 4398  Applied Experience  
3 Semester Credit Hours  

SEE COLLEGE DESCRIPTION.

HIST 4399  Internship  
3 Semester Credit Hours  

BEST PRACTICES AND METHODS IN DIGITAL ARCHIVES, MUSEUMS, AND /OR PUBLIC HISTORY THROUGH FIELD WORK AT A LOCAL ORGANIZATION OR MUSEUM. OFFERED ON APPLICATION. REPEATABLE UP TO 6 HOURS.